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Lesson 12 - Grammar 1 + 2


(383 total words in this text)

Grammar 1 이/가 [Lesson Created By KkOmA]


주격 조사. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서, -(에)서' 등이더 있다.
[Subject particle. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서, -(에)서, etc.]

1. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때
: When the noun ends in a consonant.. add 이
2. "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때
: When the noun ends in a vowel.. add 가

보기~ 1. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이
2. 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가

참고 '나, 너, 저, 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가, 네가, 제가, 누가'로 된다.
When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나, 너, 저, and 누구,' the words change into '내가, 네가, 제가, and 누가.'
내가 가요. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. 누가 갑니까?

예문~ .연필이 있습니다. There is a pencil.
. 안경이 없습니다. There is not a pair of glasses.
. 시계가 비쌉니다. The watch is expensive.
. 딸기가 맛있습니다. The strawberry is delicious.

Grammar 2 을/를

조사. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다.
[Object particle. Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb.]

1. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant.. add 을
2. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel.. add 를

보기~ 1. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을
2. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를

참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다.
[ In spoken language, it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel.
영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요."

예문~ . 신문을 봅니다. I read a newspaper.
. 커피를 마십니다. I drink a cup of coffee.
. 수영을 합니다. I swim.
. 자우개를 삽니다. I buy an eraser.

Rules:
01. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/", that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. 02. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ, it should be romanized as shi. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi.
03. To avoid confusion of syllables, a hyphen can be used. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e.
04. When ㄱ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅂ are found directly before vowel, they are romanized as g, d, r, b.
05. When ㄱ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅂ are found directly before a consonant, they should be romanized as k, t, r, p.

  

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